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W-21 Climate CHange Impacts on Water Resources of Somaliland and Puntland

Identifying, assessing and developing groundwater resources is now an urgent priority for emergency relief and long-term development in all countries in the Horn of Africa affected by drought and water scarcity. As a response to this context, UNESCO, in May 2012, launched the initiative “Strengthening Capacity to Combat Drought and Famine in the Horn of Africa: Tapping Groundwater Resources for Emergency Water Supply” through support of the Government of Japan. The overall project aims to map-out drought-resilient groundwater resources in affected areas and strengthen regional capacities in managing groundwater for drought-preparedness. In order to take advantage of the established network and experienced profile of UNESCO’s partner FAO-SWALIM (Somalia Water and Land Information Management) in Somalia, an agreement of this UNESCO-FAO partnership was formalized that governs the framework of the overall project. As part of this project, SWALIM has recently finalized a hydrogeological survey and assessment in selected areas of Somaliland and Puntland which has come up with a wealth of information on potential groundwater resources which supplements SWALIMS previous activities in Somali water and land resources information management.

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Technical report

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-20 Hydrogeological Survey and Assessment of Selected Areas in Somaliland and Puntland - Report No W-20

This report documents an assessment carried out in 2011/2012 to identify potential groundwater aquifers in Somaliland and Puntland. The report gives details of the data collection and analysis including:- desk studies; geological and geophysical field surveys; and remote sensing data analysis, as well as various products generated from the survey / assessment. The products of the hydrogeology survey include among others: hydrogeology and water quality maps of Somaliland and Puntland at a scale of 1:750,000; Hydrogeology maps for 4 selected areas of interest at a scale of 1:250,000; main report of the assessment and 4 appendices giving details of the field work, geophysics, remote sensing and databases. The report is expected to be used by different stake holders in the water sector, mainly the water authorities in Somaliland and Puntland for development and management of groundwater resources in the region

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SWALIM

RSM-02 Estimating Cultivable Areas in Central and Southern Somalia using Remote Sensing

Somalia is largely a hot, arid and semi-arid country with rainfall amounts averaging between 50 and 500 - 600 mm per annum (even though some areas may receive slightly higher amounts).To provide a first estimate of the cultivable land, this study analyzed ASTER satellite images (and where not available, other medium resolution images) for 2010 and 2011 to generate information about cultivation in central and southern Somalia. The results of this study will be the basis for a successive, more accurate analysis which will include sampling approaches and field validation (through FAO emergency staff and FSNAU monitors) in order to establish the potential cultivable land and estimate production for the different cropping systems at farmer and district levels.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

L-08 Soil Survey of the Juba and Shabelle Riverine Areas in Southern Somalia

Soil information is a key element for natural resources planning. A key output of this study is a soil map with a scale of 1:100, 000 containing the major soil types as well as soil maps for some of the irrigation projects along the Juba and Shabelle river catchments. Further, the report contains information on soil physical and chemical properties, which are key elements for natural resource management. Soil spatial variability is described for an area of approximately 88,000 km2 in the Juba and Shabelle riverine areas in Southern Somalia. This study is essential for carrying out land suitability and land degradation assessments

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District Administrative - Hargeysa

these are maps that show the general administrative boundaries of Somalia (National, Regional and District administrative boundaries) as well as settlements, towns, rivers, roads and other general geo-information.

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Map

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Assessment of Charcoal Driven Deforestation Rates in a Fragile Rangeland Environment in North Eastern Somalia Using Very High Resolution Imagery

Multi-temporal very high-resolution satellite images and field work have been used for quantifying the tree cutting rate over a 5 years period in a very arid tiger bush area of North Eastern Somalia with intensive charcoal production activities. By applying both a classical area frame sampling approach with visual interpretation of the samples and a semi-automatic tree detection algorithm, it was possible to create baseline tree density layers for the 2 years of observation and to quantify the tree cutting rates for the period from 2001 to 2006. An average annual tree loss of −2.8%, coupled with the total absence of regrowth during the 5 years study period, confirm the tremendous ecological impacts of charcoal driven tree cutting on tiger bush vegetation. Analysis of the results evidences spatial and temporal patterns in the cutting locations and poses the basis for a better understanding of the ecological and human dimensions of deforestation in the fragile rangeland environment of Northern Somalia.

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A Framework for National Assessment of Land Degradation in the Drylands: A Case Study of Somalia

Land degradation is a gradual, negative environmental process that is accelerated by human activities. Its gradual nature allows degradation to proceed unnoticed, thus reducing the likelihood of appropriate and timely control action. Presently, there are few practical frameworks to help countries design national strategies and policies for its control. The study presented here developed a framework for the national assessment of land degradation. This framework is envisaged to support governments in formulating policies on land degradation. It uses time-series remote sensing data to identify the rate and extent of land degradation, local experts to identify prevalent degradation types and drivers of the degradation and field observations to validate the overall assessment. Its simplicity, use of freely downloadable input data and self-triangulation of the assessment methods make it suitable for rapid assessment of land degradation on a national scale. It was tested in Somalia, where it exhibited accuracy greater than 60 per cent when assessing land degradation. This framework is relevant for designing national strategies and policies that address land degradation and provides an opportunity for accurate identification of areas to target with comprehensive local assessment. Testing of the framework in Somalia showed that about one-third of the country was degraded because of loss of vegetation cover, topsoil loss and to the decline of soil moisture. Overgrazing, excessive tree cutting and poor agronomic practices in agricultural areas were identified as the primary drivers of the country’s land degradation. These drivers are encouraged by the prevailing communal land tenure practices, poor governance and civil war. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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SWALIM

An Assessment of the Surface Water Resources of the Juba-Shabelle Basin in Southern Somalia

The water resources of the Juba and Shabelle rivers in southern Somalia are important for irrigation and food production, but are influenced by seasonal floods. Prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991, the Somali Ministry of Agriculture successfully operated a hydrometric network covering the Juba and the Shabelle, data from which provided input to a flow forecasting model. The war resulted in the neglect and abandonment of monitoring stations and an enforced cessation of data collection and management. In 2001 and 2002, part of the pre-war hydrometric network was reinstated and water levels were again recorded at some stations. This paper examines the implications of the 11-year hiatus in data collection, and the now much reduced monitoring network, for assessing and managing the surface water resources. The problems faced have relevance to other basins, within Africa and elsewhere, where there has been a similar decline in data collection.

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SWALIM

L-17 Mapping and Assessment of Irrigated Farms in Puntland

Irrigated agricultural areas of Puntland were mapped using Google Earth images and field based interviews with the farmers to characterize land use. Information displayed in this report includes maps of the irrigated agricultural areas and tables and pictures to show the characteristics of the irrigated agricultural areas of Puntland. The study outlines the state of the irrigated agricultural areas in Puntland and consequently points out areas which need intervention. However, this study is being updated and concluded in SWALIM V.

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Technical report

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SWALIM

L-18 Monitoring of Golis Forest in Somalia- Report No

This study serves as a starting point towards a monitoring initiative for the Golis mountain forest. It forms part of the input to the land degradation monitoring activity initiated by SWALIM. Information generated in the study includes a map showing land cover in the Golis forest, tables and pie charts to show utilization and management of the resources of the forest. The maps in this study were generated using Landsat TM images aided by Google Earth images and ecological field surveys coupled with interviews to the local people to help characterize the forest in terms of management and utilization concerns. Information contained in this study will help in the improved management and utilization of the forest.

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SWALIM

L-19 - Methodology for Monitoring of Mangroves in Somalia

This study serves as a starting point towards a monitoring initiative for the mangrove ecosystem of Somalia. It also forms part of the input to the land degradation monitoring activity initiated by SWALIM. Information generated in the study includes maps showing location of the mangroves, tables and pie charts to show utilization and management of the resources of the Somalia mangroves. The maps in this study were generated using Google Earth images and ecological field surveys coupled with interviews to the local people to help characterize the mangrove forests in terms of their management and utilization. Information contained in this study will help in the improved management and utilization of the mangrove forests of Somalia. The study covered the mangroves of Zeylac, Barbera, Calula in the north and Kismayio in the south.

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Technical report

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SWALIM

L-20 Practical guide for Land Degradation Monitoring

This practical guide for land degradation monitoring will provide tools that can be used to facilitate a simple and systematic approach to monitoring long-term changes in soil and rangeland conditions and will be the working document for future monitoring programmes. The simple monitoring methods presented in this guide will be used to periodically generate quantitative information from different representative sites of degraded land, land under degradation or sensitive degraded land within the country. The monitoring approach will enable information to be shared among all stakeholders involved in land resource management and will help national decision-makers and the donor communities to make sound land resource management decisions.

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Integrated draft:The environment conservation act and the agricultural land ownership law

The environment conservation act and the agricultural land ownership law

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Other

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Towards a spatial Data Infrastructure for Somalia using open source standards

SDI is a well-known concept in Africa, many countries are on the way to having a formal SDI strategy Certain countries, such as Somalia, are starting the process of nation building after years of war. These countries stand to leapfrog other African countries by implementing current SDI best practices. The FAO‐SWALIM project is in the unique position to be able to assist Somali authorities in providing some of the building blocks for SDI development, even though SWALIM does not have the legal mandate to do so. This paper highlights what SWALIM can currently contribute and what significant work (and resources) are still required for a Somalia National SDI.

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W-18 Inventory of Drainage Basins of Northern Somalia

Addressing issues of natural resources requires a holistic approach that recognizes the interdependence between competing demands and limited resources. Integrated watershed management is recognized as the best instrument for dealing with water and natural resources. This would also contribute to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger (MDG 1) through improved food security (main focus of FAO) and sustainable environmental management (MDG 7). To enable start a process of integrated water resources management in Northern Somalia, the Somalia Water and Land Information Management (SWALIM) project has been mandated by the European Union (EU) to develop an inventory of the drainage basins of the area. A great percentage of the Somalia population relies directly on the natural resource base to meet their daily needs.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-15 Flood Risk and Response Management

Floods regularly cause disasters in Somalia, and in particular along the Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the southern part of the country. The downstream segments of these rivers are marked by an inverse topography, with water courses at some locations on higher elevation than the adjacent land; as a result, the lower parts of the riverine floodplains are highly susceptible to flooding (an attribute widely used in gravity-fed irrigation and deshek farming). Arid and semi-arid land further away from the main river courses also experience flash-flood events. Flood risk management (FRM) has been defined as “a systematic process that produces a range of measures associated with flood hazard mitigation, emergency preparedness, impact response and disaster recovery, and which contributes to the safety of communities and the environment; and at the same time parallels risk management and good management practices”.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-16 Somalia Flood Forecasting System

Floods are a common phenomenon in the riverine areas of the Juba and Shabelle River basin. The two rivers exhibit seasonal characteristics in their hydrological regime with high tendency of flooding especially during the Deyr (October to November) rain season. Some of the major flood events in the two basins in the past few decades occurred in the years 1961, 1977, 1981, 1997 and 2006. The floods are mainly caused by high rains experienced on the upper catchments of the two rivers in the Ethiopian highlands. However, the contribution of human activities to the floods is also significant, with the riparian farmers cutting the river banks to allow water flow into their fields during low flows. These illegal activities have increased after collapse of the central government in 1991 and exacerbated by El Nino 1997/98 rains that contributed to further destruction of the irrigation and flood control infrastructure.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-17 Water Sources Survey Invetory for Central South Somalia

Somalia’s surface water resources are concentrated mainly along the two perennial rivers, Juba and Shabelle. The flow in both rivers varies widely across the seasons. During the two rainy seasons, Deyr and Gu, the rivers often flood from very high flows, whereas in the dry season, flow is very minimal and can barely support irrigation. The riverine areas of the Juba and Shabelle occupy a small percentage of the Somalia’s territory. Majority of the country falls under arid and semi arid climatic conditions with very limited surface water resources. Domestic and commercial water needs in such areas are usually met through underground water sources.

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Technical report

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-19 UNICEF’s Water Interventions Mapping Report (2005-2009)

The major objective of the mapping exercise was to evaluate progress made in the water sector in terms of coverage of water services and increase in number of benefi ciaries served through UNICEF’s EC funded programme. The report documents the results of interventions for the period 2005 to 2009 under the programme “Integrated Water Resource Management and Rural Water and Sanitation Programme in Somalia”. SWALIM carried out the mapping exercise at the request of UNICEF. The information products from the exercise include maps showing annual progress, regional maps for rural interventions and water supply system maps for major towns.

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SWALIM

W-13 Hydraulic Behaviour of the Juba and Shabelle Rivers

The alluvial plains of the two Somali perennial rivers, the Shebelle and Juba Rivers, have been and could be the breadbasket of Somalia. They have considerable potential for irrigation development. The civil war in the last two decades has however taken a severe toll on the institutions and infrastructure necessary to manage the water resources of the two rivers that is the lifeline of Southern Somalia. Flooding is now a frequent problem in the riverine areas and sometimes it takes the proportion of a catastrophic natural disaster, like in the 2006 Deyr rainy season. Natural flood plains have been encroached and the embankments have been cut to divert water during the dry season for irrigation purposes. The barrages and canals that were used to irrigate vast areas are now dysfunctional. Efforts are underway to prepare an integrated flood management plan and also to rehabilitate the irrigation facilities and revive the agricultural sector. These efforts are hampered by lack of knowledge of river basin behaviour in terms of hydrology, hydraulics, sedimentation, etc. and, lack of public institutions responsible for implementing sound river basin management measures.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

L-12 Land Resources Assessment of Somalia

This report gives an overview of the land resources for the whole country. The main focus is on the agricultural potential of the country and is expressed through the delineation and description of agro-ecological zones. It provides a physical land suitability assessment of the two main SWALIM study areas in western Somaliland and southern Somalia, respectively. In addition it gives a summary of research done in the study area in Puntland, dealing with the applicability of remote sensing techniques for the assessment of pastoral resources while describing some of the results of the land degradation assessment study done in western Somaliland area.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-14 Analysis of General Climatic Conditions in Somalia in Support of Drought Monitoring

Africa is characterised by extremes of climate both spatially and temporally. Unlike in the temperate zones where growing seasons primarily reflect changes in temperature, Africa's rhythms of life reflect rainfall as the "limiting" factor. Generally, Africa has a wide variety of bimodal climates based around a summer wet season and a winter dry season. In fact, Africa's swings between dry and wet seasons are the most pronounced of any of the continents. Not surprisingly therefore, floods and droughts are a common feature all over the continent. Due to the high drought vulnerability in most countries in Africa, it is not surprising that the drought hazards easily develop into disasters with serious consequences. The situation seems to be more serious in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA).

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

L-14 Land Degradation Assessment and a Monitoring Framework in Somalia

In this study, national-level assessment of land degradation was done using time series remote sensing images from 1982 till 2008 and expert opinion about the history of the degradation in Somalia dating back as far as the experts could remember. The objective of the study was to identify potential causes, types, and impacts of land degradation at the national level and to identify local spots for comprehensive assessment. The outputs from this study was envisaged to support policy decisions for combating land degradation at the national level and to give the general guidelines of the sections of the country experiencing severe degradation so that appropriate planning of the national resources could be instituted. The assessment was stratified according to land use systems units in the country. In addition to the assessment, the study also established good baseline information for future monitoring of land degradation in Somalia.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

L-16 Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Modelling and Monitoring of the Areas Between Rivers Juba and Shabelle in Southern Somalia

Soil erosion is a complex dynamic process by which the productive soil surface is detached, transported, and accumulated at a distant place. It produces exposed subsurface where the soil has been detached and the detached deposited in low-lying areas of the landscape or in water bodies downstream in a process known as sedimentation. The present study by FAO-SWALIM was initiated with the general objective of preparing an assessment of soil erosion and sedimentation of the riverine areas between rivers Juba and Shabelle and to provide input into soil erosion and sedimentation monitoring framework which will contribute to improved management of the irrigation systems in south Somalia. The study identified areas prone to high soil erosion rates and sediment flux into river Juba and Shabelle in south Somalia.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

L-15 Detection of Tree Cutting in the Rangelands of NE Somalia

This report outlines how very high resolution satellite imagery was used to estimate the rate of tree-cutting in Puntland. The study used visual interpretation of Ikonos and Quickbird images for 2001 and 2006 respectively to generate tree density maps for the two years. Through collaboration between SWALIM and the EC Joint Research Centre at Ispra, Italy, an automatic procedure for identifying and classifying trees was also tested. Both techniques produced similar results, which showed an overall decrease in tree density between 2001 and 2006. The results also showed some areas where the tree densities have increased due to environmental conservation through community interventions. The method used can be up-scaled to other parts of Somalia to support afforestation campaigns and environmental conservation.

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SWALIM

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