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Rainfall Forecast for SIRA II project Area – Issued 03 June 2024

This week marks the end of the Gu rains across the project area, ushering in the Hagaa season. The forecasted dry conditions may benefit agropastoral activities such as weeding in the Awdal region, which includes Baki and Borama districts. Here, above-normal Hagaa conditions are expected to maintain soil moisture, supporting continued crop and fodder production. However, the anticipated hot and dry air mass over the northern parts of the project area this coming week may lead to severe evapotranspiration, posing significant challenges to agropastoral activities. As we transition into the Hagaa season, it is crucial to implement measures for water conservation and the preservation of existing crops and fodder.

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Somalia Gu 2024 Rainfall Performance Review and Impacts on Livelihood - Issued 20 June 2024

Several key findings have been obtained following a review of the 2024 Gu (March-April-May) rains and forecast of Hagaa (June-July-August) season: The heaviest cumulative rainfall was observed in Hiraan region (408.2 mm at Belet Weyne) and Woqooyi Galbeed region (477.0 mm at Gumburaha station); with the least rainfall observed over Puntland. There was more than 3 weeks-long dry spell in all the stations in the country with even longer than two months over some stations in Puntland. The earliest rains (in March) of equal or more than 20 mm per day was observed in some stations in Somaliland with no single station in South and Central Somalia and Puntland that received daily rains of such intensity in the same month. Based on the adopted definition of onset, there was a staggered start to the rainy season across the stations with the earliest onset observed in Qansadhere in Bay region on March 24, 2024, and the latest onset in Gacan-libaah in Togdheer region on May 3, 2024. Over the Juba and Shabelle River Catchments, the above normal rains were evenly spread with less consecutive rainy days and therefore moderate flood magnitude. However, the close to double the LTM rains observed at Doolow (117.5 mm) on 07-May-24, and the more than double the average rainfall at Belet Weyne resulted in to floods, displacing 7,100 families in Belet Weyne town. On a positive note, the rains observed in Gu across most other parts of the country were beneficial to agropastoral livelihoods in many aspects including favorable soil moisture conditions for crop and fodder production, and replenishment of surface and ground water sources. The more than a month-long dry spell within the season however posed a serious threat to the survival of crops and water retention in both open, shallow and groundwater sources. According to IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC), wetter than usual conditions are expected over few areas in north-western and southern coastal parts of the country with rest of the country remaining usually dry over the Hagaa season. According to Climate Prediction Centre (CPC), there is a 65 % chance that the present ENSO-neutral conditions will favor the development of La Niña later in July-September. Depending on the evolution of other drivers including the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), this may drive below normal Deyr 2024 conditions over Somalia. The below normal rainfall conditions associated with the even better likelihood (85 %) of La Niña persisting into November-December-January may trigger a multi-season drought with a potential reversal of the currently achieved agropastoral gains. This bulletin presents both qualitative and quantitative review of the temporal and spatial variation of the observed, and verification of the forecast Gu rainfall amount and anomaly, length of wet and dry spells, and onset dates. It also reviews the experienced (Gu) and current (Hagaa) and long term projected (Deyr) weather impacts on livelihoods over Somalia.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 22 May 2024

According to ICPAC, during the week between 21 and 28 May 2024, dry conditions and light rainfall is expected in most inland parts of the country with chances of moderate rains over coastal parts of the southern regions. These forecast coastal rains seem to be driven by the warming in the Indian Ocean. As the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts further north, its impact on the Gu rains across the country begins to diminish ushering in Hagaa season. However, given that today’s Madden Julian Oscillation’s (MJO) 3-day forecast position is associated with better skill and reliability, there is still some likelihood of moderate rains before the end of the month. Day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) is as follows: Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most coastal parts of Somalia including; Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region; northern parts of Ceel Afweyn, Ceerigaabo and Laasqoray districts in Sanaag region; Bossaso, Qandala, Banderbeyla, Caluula and Iskushuban districts in Bari region; Eyl district in Nugaal region; Jariiban, Xarardheere and Hobyo districts in Mudug region; Ceel Dheer in Galgaduud region; Adan Yabaal, Cadale and Balcad districts in Middle Shabelle region; Afgooye, Qoryooley, Kurtunwaarey and Sablaale districts in Lower Shabelle region; Mogadishu in Banadir region; Jilib district in Middle Juba region; Jamaame, Kismayo and Badhaadhe districts in Lower Juba region. Similarly, other inland districts that are likely to receive light rainfall include Hargeisa and Gebiley districts in Woqooyi Galbeed region; Odweyne district in Togdheer region; Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region; Tayeeglow district in Bakool region; Baydhaba and Qansax Dheere districts in Bay region; and Afmadow district in Lower Juba region. Dry conditions (including rainfall less than 1 mm) are likely in most areas of Awdal and Sool regions; Burao district in Togdheer region; southern parts of Ceel Afweyn and Ceerigaabo districts in Sanaag region; Qardho district in Bari region; Garowe district in Nugaal region; western parts of Burtinle distric in Nugaal region; Gaalkacyo and Galdogob districts in Mudug region; Caabudwaaq and western parts of Cadaado district in Galgaduud region; Ceel Barde, Xudur, Rab Dhuure and Waajid districts in Bakool region; Doolow, Belet Xaawo and Ceel Waaq districts in Gedo region; and Caluula district in Bari region. Tropical Storm Ialy Advisory Tropical Storm Ialy (Map 2) started off as a Disturbance on 14 May 2024 growing into a Moderate Tropical Storm on 16 May and into a Severe Tropical Storm on 19 May. It is forecast to reduce in intensity in the next 24 hours as it approaches the Equator to just a normal low-pressure system without making landfall in any part of the East African coastline. However, the area of influence may stretch towards the Equator resulting in strong surface wind, large ocean waves and moderate rainfall over the coastal and nearby inland areas of Badhaade, Kismaayo and Jilib Districts.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 29 May 2024

Weekly Rainfall Forecast: According to ICPAC, during the week between 28 May to 3 June 2024, dry conditions are expected in most inland parts of the country with chances of light rainfall over coastal parts of the southern regions (Map 1). Given that this forecast week represents the transition out of the Gu season, it is important to mention that, according to ICPAC, above-normal Hagaa rainfall conditions are expected over Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Lower Shabelle, and Awdal regions. On the other hand, Togdheer and Sool-Sanaag regions are likely to experience drier-than-normal Hagaa conditions. Evolution of Rainfall Drivers: As the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts further north, its impact on the Gu rains across the country begins to diminish ushering in Hagaa season. As the ITCZ shifts further north, a low-pressure system will be set up in Indian Sub-continent triggering the Southwest monsoon winds. As the winds blow from land into the Ocean (westerly land breeze) between 3:00 am and 9:00 am in the morning they converge with the prevailing easterly winds aiding lifting of warm and moist air causing the morning showers observed and forecast over the coastal parts of southern regions including Banadir. The forecast shift in the position of Madden Julian Oscillation’s (MJO) index from the Indian Ocean re-affirms the forecast dry conditions inland and a reduction in the intensity of the morning coastal showers in the coming days. This shift is also likely to lead to a reduction in the cyclonic activity in the southwestern Indian Ocean and favor such disturbances in the northern Indian Ocean particularly Bay of Bengal.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 02 May 2024

During the week between 1 and 7 May 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light to moderate rain is expected over most parts of the country, with chances of heavy rain and flash floods expected in some areas of Hiraan, Galgaduud and Mudug regions. Based on climatology, the observed and anticipated northward spread of the rains into the central and northern parts of Somalia is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The arrival of the ITCZ will attract low-level incursions of precipitable water inland thereby mitigating the prolonged dry conditions over Bari. The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index, which ideally is expected to propagate eastwards covering the entire globe in 40 – 60 days, and therefore anticipated to be present over 1 of the 8 regions for about one week, has stagnated over the eastern Indian Ocean for about two weeks. This is favoring the observed moderate to heavy rains in Somalia and the extremely heavy rains elsewhere within the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA). The location of the index since 25 April shows improvement in strength and increase in forecast skill and reliability. As of 1 May, the index is at region 4 and is forecast to be back to region 2 within the next two weeks. Its lagged effect favors a continuation of moderate rains in the first half of the forecast period (1 – 4 May) with expected possible resumption of heavy rainfall activity in the second week of May. The favorable effect of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on the rains cannot also be ruled out. According to Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the warming in the Indian Ocean indicates a likelihood of positive IOD developing earlier than usual. Although Somalia is not within the direct path of the current tropical disturbance in the western Indian Ocean, the low pressure associated with it may lead to sucking of moisture causing generally less rainfall over the southern part of the country. Week by week and day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some isolated areas in central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Hobyo district, southern parts of Gaalkacyo district, northern parts of Jaariban district in Mudug region, and southern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region. The rains over isolated areas in the above places particularly in the central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district may be very intense leading to more than 200 mm in cumulative terms and are likely to fall between 1 and 3 May 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding in vulnerable spots including flat and crowded human settlements. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the rest of the other areas in the following places: central and eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Hobyo district, southern parts of Gaalkacyo district, northern parts of Jaariban district, and eastern parts of Galdogob district in Mudug region, and western and southern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region. Similarly heavy rains are likely over northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, southern parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region, eastern parts of Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region and Baraawe district in Lower Shabelle. • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over the rest of the areas in Dhuusamareeb district, and eastern parts of both Ceel Buur and Ceel Dheer districts in Galgaduud region, Gaalkacyo and Galdogob district and coastal parts of Xaradheere district in Mudug region, and Belet Weyne district and northern parts of Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northern parts of both Ceerigaabo and Laas Qoray districts in Sanaag region, Burtinle district and northern parts of Eyl district in Nugaal region, Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region, Baraawe, Sablaale, Kurtunwaarey and Wanla Weyne districts in Lower Shabelle region. Similar rains are likely over Qandala district and southern parts of both Qardho and Bandarbeyla districts in Bari region, central parts of Hargeisa-Odweyne districts’ border, Buhoodle district in Togdherregion, Las Anod and Xudun-Taleex districts’ border in Sool region. Rains of similarly moderate intensy are likely over some areas in South West State including Buur Hakaba district and central parts of Baydhaba district in Bay region, central parts of Bakool region and central parts of Bardheere district in Gedo region. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most of the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Bay, Bakool, Gedo, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed, Bari, Nugaal, coastal parts of Mudug, southern parts of Sanaag, central parts of Sool, and southern parts of Awdal. • Dry conditions are likely to prevail over southwestern, northwestern, and northeastern parts of the country. These include western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, Zeylac and Lughaye districts in Awdal region, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Caluul and Iskushuban districts in Bari region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 09 May 2024

During the week between 8 and 14 May 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light rains are expected over most parts of the country with moderate rains likely over Lower Shabelle and coastal parts of Lower Juba. Based on climatology, the observed and anticipated northward spread of the rains into the central and northern parts of Somalia is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ's arrival will attract low-level incursions of precipitable water inland, mitigating prolonged dry conditions over Bari. After the prolonged stagnation, the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index has now propagated eastwards from our region. This is likely to favor a week-long break from the moderate to heavy rains received in the region. The forecast return of the index is likely to drive moderate to heavy rains from 15 May 2024. The forecast rains in the third week of May (15 – 21 May) are associated with better skill and reliability. The rains are likely to decrease thereafter marking the end of the Gu season particularly in Jubaland, South West and Hirshabelle. The effect of the sea surface temperature (SSTs) difference between the eastern and western Indian Ocean on the rains cannot also be ruled out. According to Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the warming in the Indian Ocean indicates a likelihood of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) developing earlier than usual. However, it has been reported that MJO events occurring during positive IOD have weaker convection and less organized wind anomalies which restricts local low-level moisture transport thus explaining the low likelihood of very extreme rainfall this season. Week by week and day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall according to NOAA-NCEP GFS are as follows: • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over Lower Shabelle region particularly Barawe, Marka and southern parts of both Sablaale and Kurtunwaarey districts. Similar moderate rains are likely over the coastal parts of Lower Juba region particularly Badhadhe, Kismaayo and Jamaame districts. The rains, according to ICPAC weekly forecast may be more intense (100 mm to 200 mm) over Hirshabelle region including the Shabelle River catchment within the country and upstream in Ethiopia. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast across the most other parts of the country particularly in Woqooyi Galbeed, Sanaag, Nugaal, Mudug, Hirshabelle, Bay, Bakool, Middle Shabelle, and Middle Juba regions. • Dry conditions are particularly likely over the Zeylac, Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region; Berbera district and eastern parts of Hargeisa district in Waqooyi Galbeed region; Odweine, Burao and Buhoodle districts in Togdheer region; Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region; and Bossaso, Qandala, Calula, Isku-shuban and Bandarbeyle districts in Bari region. Towards the central part of the country dry conditions are also expected over western parts of both Burtinle and Garowe and coastal parts of Eyl district in Nugaal region; Xarardheere, Hobyo and Jariiban districts in Mudug region; and Ceel Buur and Cadaado districts in Galgaduud region. Dry conditions are also expected western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region; Doolow and Belet Xaawo districts, western parts of both Luuq and Garbahaarey districts and southern parts of Baardheere district in Gedo region; Saakow district in Middle Shabelle region; Xudur in Bakool region; Wanla Weyn district in Lower Shabelle region; and western parts of Jowhar district in Middle Shabelle region.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 14 May 2024

According to NOAA-NCEP GFS, during the week between 14 and 20 May 2024, light to moderate rain are expected in Puntland and Somaliland with dry conditions likely throughout central and southern parts of the country. This general northward spread of the rains is favored by the northward presence of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). As had been anticipated, the eastward propagation of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index from the Indian Ocean favored the general dry conditions during the last week (7 – 13). While the index is presently within the region, none of the weather forecast models has captured its effect on rainfall during this forecast week. Given that its 5-day forecast position is associated with better skill and reliability, there is still a likelihood of moderate to heavy rains towards the end of the forecast week i.e., from around 18 May 2024. Day-to-day monitoring is therefore advised. The rains are likely to decrease thereafter marking the end of the Gu season particularly in Jubaland, Southwest and Hirshabelle. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall are as follows: Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over northwestern parts of Bandarbeyla district in Bari region. These rains are likely to be received between 14 and 16 May 2024. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over several areas in both Bandarbeyla and Iskushuban districts, northern parts of Qardho district, and southern parts of both Qandala and Caluula districts in Bari region; Garowe district, coastal parts of Eyl district, and northern parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region; eastern and western parts of Ceerigaabo district, western parts of Ceel Afweyn district, and northern parts of Laasqoray district in Sanaag region; southern parts of Laas Caanod district and northern parts of Caynabo district in Sool region; northern parts of Burco district and western parts of Owdweyne district in Togdheer region; Gebiley district and northern and southern parts of Hargeysa district, and southern parts of Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed; and Borama and central and southern parts of Baki district, northern parts of Zeylac district in Awdal region. Rains of similarly trace amounts are also likely over isolated areas of Hobyo district, northern parts of Jariiban district, eastern parts of Gaalkacyo district in Mudug region; western parts of Dhuusamarreeb district in Galgaduud region; Belet Weyne town in Hiraan region; eastern parts of Afgooye district in Lower Shabelle region; and Banadir region. Dry conditions (rainfall less than 1 mm) are likely in most areas in the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool and Middle Shabelle region. Dry conditions are also likely to prevail over Sablaale, Baraawe, Kurunwaarey, Qoryooley, Wanla Weyn districts and central and western parts of Afgooye district in Lower Shabelle region; Jalalaqsi, Bulo Burte and most other parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region; Ceel Dheer, Ceel Buur, Cabudwaaq and Cadaado districts and most other parts of Dhuusamarreeb district in Galgaduud regiuon; Xarardheere district, vast areas of Hobyo district, most other parts of both Jariiban and Gaalkacyo districts in Mudug region. Towards the northern parts of the country, dry conditions are also likely over inland parts of Eyl district, and most other parts of Burtinle district in Nugaal region; Bossaso district, most other parts of Qardho, Qandala and Caluula districts in Bari region; most other parts of Ceerigaabo, Laasqoray and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region; Xudun, Taleex, and most other parts of both Laas Caanood and Caynabo districts in Sool region; Buhoodle and Sheikh districts and most other parts of Burco and Owdweyne districts in Togdheer region; central parts of Hargeysa district, and most other parts of Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed; and Lughaye, northern parts of Baki district, and southern parts of Zeylac district in Awdal region.

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Tropical Storm Ialy Advisory - English - Issued 21 May 2024

This Tropical Storm Advisory is applicable to Lower Juba and Middle Juba regions, particularly Badhaadhe, Kismaayo and Jilib Districts and the surrounding areas where moderate localized rains, strong winds and large ocean waves may be observed. Tropical Storm Ialy started off as a Disturbance on 14 May 2024 growing into a Moderate Tropical Storm on 16 May and into a Severe Tropical Storm on 19 May. It is forecast to reduce in intensity in the next 36 hours (about 1 and a half days) as it approaches the Equator to a just a normal low-pressure system without making landfall in any part of the East African coastline. However, the area of influence may stretch beyond the Equator resulting in strong surface wind, large ocean waves and moderate rainfall over the coastal and nearby inland areas of Badhaahde, Kismaayo and Jilib Districts. Therefore, a MODERATE-RISK WARNING FOR STRONG WINDS, LARGE OCEAN WAVES AND FLASH FLOODS is in effect for Badhaahde, Kismaayo and Jilib Districts and the surrounding areas due to spillover effects of Tropical Storm Ialy.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 19 April 2024

During the week between 18 and 24 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, moderate to heavy rains are expected over several areas in the South West and Hirshabelle States with chances of very heavy rains over some areas in Bay and Sool-Sanaag regions. Light to moderate rain is expected over vast inland areas of Puntland with tendency of general dry conditions over the coastal areas of Bari and Nugaal regions. The chances of wetter conditions might be supported by the stagnation of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index over the eastern parts of Indian Ocean. The small amplitude of the index however signifies weak cycles of the MJO. This therefore is associated with decreased skill and reliability of extended range forecasts. The tendency of general dry conditions over Bari is likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the northeastern coastline which limits the incursions of precipitable water inland. The anticipated northward spread of the rains from South West into Hirshabelle and possibly Galgaduud is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some areas in Dinsoor, Baydhaba and Buur Hababa districts in Bay region, southwestern parts of Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northwestern parts of Ceel Buur district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, southern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, and southern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. The rains over isolated areas in the above parts of Bay, Sool and Sanaag regions may be very intense leading to more than 200 mm in cumulative terms and are likely to fall between 18 and 21 April 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the following areas: Dinsoor, Baydhaba and Buur Hababa districts in Bay region, Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, northwestern parts of Ceel Buur district in Galgaduud region, northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, southern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, and southern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. Such rains are alkso expected over southern parts of both Sablaale and Kurtunwaarey districts in Lower Shabelle region, eastern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, northwen parts of Qandala district in Bari region, northern parts of Laasqoray district and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region, Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over the rest of the areas in Bay and Sanaag regions, the rest of the areas in Xudun and Taleex district in Sool region, the rest of the areas in southern Burco district in Togdheer region, several areas in Lower Shabelle region, Ceel Waaq and Bardheere districts in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle region, Qandala district and northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, and over an area confined to the southern Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over several areas in Lower Juba, Mudug and Nugaal, Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed regions, the rest of the areas in Gedo and Bari regions, Jowhar, Cadale and Adan Yabaal districts in Middel Shabelle region. Such rains are likely over Borama districtareas in Gedo and Bari regions, Jowhar, Cadale and Adan Yabaal districts in Middel Shabelle region. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast coastal areas in Nugaal and Bari region, Zeylac district and northern parts of both Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region. Temperature Forecast: Moderately high temperatures of between 35 ℃ and 40 ℃ are likely over Lower and Middle Juba regions, Galgaduud, Mudug and Bari regions, Dollow and Luuq districts in Gedo region, Sablaale and Wanla Weyn districts in Middle Shabelle region, southern parts fo both Dinsoor and Buur Hakaba districts in Bay region, western parts of both Belet Weyne and Bulo Burte districts in Hiraan region, Garowe district in Nugaal region, Sheikh district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Zeylac and Lughaye districts and northern parts of Baki district in Awdal region. Moderate temperatures of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ are likely the rest of the country except over Qandala in Bari region, Ceerigaabo in Sanaag region and northern parts of Odweyne in Togdheer region where temperatures less than 30 ℃ are anticipated.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 25 April 2024

During the week between 24 and 30 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, Light to Moderate rains are expected over the vast majority area in Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sool and Nugaal Regions. Most parts of Awdal, Sanaag, and Bari Regions will be dry over the forecast period. Along the coastal areas of Mudug, Galgadud and Middle Shabelle light rains are anticipated, while the rest of the country will receive moderate to heavy rains in the coming week. The chances of wet conditions are supported by the stagnation of Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) index over the eastern parts of Indian Ocean over the last 10 days. The small amplitude of the index however signifies weak cycles of the MJO. This therefore is associated with decreased skill and reliability of extended range forecasts. The tendency of general dry conditions over Bari and Sanaag Regions is likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the northeastern coastline which limits the incursions of precipitable water inland. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: • Very heavy cumulative rainfall between 150 mm and 200 mm is likely over some areas in western parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiran region, and Baydhaba district in Bay region. Other parts of the country likely to receive the very heavy rainfall are Buale in Middle Juba Region, Garbahaarey in Gedo Region, and south of Burco in Togdheer Region. The heavy rains are likely to fall between 24 and 28 April 2024 with likelihood of flash flooding. • Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is likely over the following areas: Galkacayo in Mudug region, Dhuusamareeb in Galgaduud region, southern parts of Beletweine in Hiran region, Baydhaba in Bay region, Bu’aale in Middle Jubba, Kismayo in Lower Jubba, Garbaharey in Gedo region, Such rains are also expected over Burao in Togdheer region, and western parts of Hargeisa in Waqooyi-Galbed region. • Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over most areas of Mudug and Galgaduud regions, parts of Xudun and Taleex district sin Sool region, several areas in Lower Shabelle region, Ceel Waaq and Bardheere districts in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle region, Qandala district and northern parts of Qardho district in Bari region, and over an area confined to the southern Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed. • Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over vast majority areas in Waqoyi-Galbeed, southern parts of Burao, and Las’anod districts in Togdheer and Sool regions, Baki district in Awdal region, Erigavo district in Sanaag region, western parts of Garowe, Southeastren parts of Galkacayo in Mudug region. Such rains are likely over the most areas in southern and coastal parts of Mudug, Galgaduud, and Middle Shabelle regions. • Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast coastal areas in Nugaal and Bari region, Zeylac district and northern parts of both Lughaye and Baki districts in Awdal region, and eastern parts of Garowe and Las,anod districts in Nugaal and Sool regions, and southern parts of Jowhar district.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 04 April 2024

During the week from the 2nd to 8th April 2024, the onset of the Gu rains is likely to be observed with moderate rainfall expected over some places in the following regions: Lower Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Lower Shabelle, Awdal, and Woqooyi Galbeed regions. Dry conditions are likely to be observed over most parts of Galmudug and Puntland. The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to result from the north easterly winds being orographically lifted by the east-west oriented mountain ranges. The anticipated progression of the rains from Jubaland into South West is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 m and 150 mm is expected over some places in the western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, the northern parts of Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, and western parts of Rab Dhuure in Bakool region. It is noteworthy that such projected heavy rains will fall within the catchment of Juba River. Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over most places in the western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region, central parts of Baardheere district, western parts of Ceel Waaq district, eastern parts of Garbahaarey district and northern parts of Luuq district in Gedo region, northern parts of Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, western parts of Rab Dhuure district in Bakool region, and western parts of Sablaale and Baraawe districts in Lower Shabelle region. In the north, similarly moderate rains are anticipated over most places in Borama district and southern parts of Baki district in Awdal region, Gebiley district and western parts of Hargeysa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most places in Middle Juba and Middle Shabelle regions including Banadir, most of the other places in Lower Juba region including Jamaame district, most of the other places in Gedo region including Belet Xaawo and Doolow districts, most of the other places in Bay region including Baydhaba district and western parts of Buur Hakaba district, most of the other places in Bakool region including Waajid, Xudur and Tayeeglow districts and central and western parts of Cee Barde district, and most of the other places in Lower Shabelle including Kurtunwaarey and Qoryooley districts. Light rainfall is also expected over most parts of Hiraan region and coastal parts of both Ceel Dheer district in Galgaduud region and Xarardheere district in Mudug region. In the north, rainfall of similar amount is expected over most of the other places in Borama and southern parts of both Baki and Zeylac districts in Awdal region, most of the other places in Gebiley and Hargeysa districts in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and most of the other northern parts of both Ceerigaabo and Cel Afweyn districts in Sanaag region. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in the north including Bari, Sool, and Nugaal regions, Laasqoray district and central and southern parts of both Ceel Afweyn and Ceerigaabo districts in Sanaag region, Lughaye district and northern parts of both Zeylac and Baki districts in Awdal region, and Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region. Dry conditions are also expected in the central parts of the country including most inland parts of Mudug region, Cabudwaaq, Cadaado, and Dhuusamareeb districts in Galgaduud region, central and northern parts of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, and the areas in Afgoye-Wanla Weyn districts’ boundary in Lower Shabelle.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 10 April 2024

During the week between 10 and 16 April 2024, and based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, light to moderate rains is predicted over several isolated areas in Jubaland, Southwest and Galgaduud with dry conditions in Somaliland and Puntland. It is important to point out that ICPAC’s forecast based on WRF anticipates wetter conditions particularly over Gedo region. The chances of wetter conditions might be supported by the prolonged presence of MJO index over the Indian Ocean region. This stagnation of the MJO over this region indicates the presence of heavy rainfall producing conditions. The prevalent dry conditions over most parts of Puntland are likely to be driven by the low-level easterly winds blowing parallel to the coastline and therefore limiting the injection of water vapor inland. The anticipated spread of the rains from Jubaland into South West and possibly Galgaduud is favored by the northward movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall are as follows: Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 m and 150 mm is likely over some isolated areas over Jubaland. Based on consensus such heavy rainfall is anticipated over Kismaayo district in Lower Juba region and, Bardheere and Ceel Waaq districts in Gedo region. According to ICPAC’s forecast, the rains over Ceel Waaq district might be particularly heavy accumulating to above 150 mm. It is noteworthy that such projected heavy rains will fall within the catchment of Juba River. Moderate cumulative rainfall between 50 mm and 100 mm is likely over very isolated areas in Jubaland, Dinsoor and Qansax Dheere districts in Bay region, Sablaale, Baraawe, Wanla Weyne and Afgoye districts in Lower Juba region, Jowhar and Balcad districts in Middle Shabelle region. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most other places in Jubaland, South West, Hirshabelle and Galgaduud. Isolated light rains are also likely over some areas in the northern parts of the country particularly the windward sides of the mountainous and hilly areas. Such rains are likely over Borama district and southern parts of both Baki and Zeylac districts in Awdal region, and Qandala district in Bari region. Based on consensus, dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in Puntland and the other places in Somaliland. Specifically, such dry conditions are likely over most areas of the following regions: Mudug, Nugaal, Bari, Sool, Sanaag, Togdheer and Woqqoyi Galbeed. Some forecasts also anticipated dry conditions over some areas in Hirshabelle and Bakool region. Temperature Forecast: Most parts of the country particularly southern and central parts are expected to observe moderately high temperatures of between 35 ℃ and 40 ℃. However, both exceptionally elevated (above 40 ℃) and remarkably moderate temperatures (below 30 ℃) are likely in some areas. Elevated temperatures above 40 ℃ are likely over some parts of Sheikh district in Woqooyi Galbeed region and Ceel Afweyn district in Sanaag region. Moderate temperatures of between 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ are likely some places in the north and the south and along the coastlines including the entire eastern coastline. Such temperatures are expected over most parts of Sanaag region particularly in Ceerigaabo district, most parts of southern Woqooyi Galbeed region particularly in Hargeisa district, and most parts of Borama district and southern parts of Baki district in Awdal region. In the south, these conditions are likely over Ceel Waaq district in Gedo region, Baydhaba district, eastern parts of Qansax Dheere district and northern parts of Dinsoor district in Bay region. Temperatures less than 30 ℃ are likely over the elevated areas in the north including places in Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region and Qandala district in Bari region.

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Somalia Seasonal Rainfall Outlook for Gu 2024

According to the Seasonal Climate Forecast issued by IGAD’s Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC), there is a 55% likelihood that above normal rainfall (wetter than normal conditions) will be observed over most parts of Somalia. In the south these above normal rains are likely over Gedo, Bay, and most parts of Bakool regions. In the north, chances of above normal Gu rains are particularly high over Bari, Nugaal, Sool, Sanaag and Awdal regions, Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and the southern parts of Togdheer region. Above normal rains are also likely over Mudug and Galgaduud regions in the central parts of the country, there is 40 – 50 % likelihood above normal rains over Hiraan region and extensive coastal parts of the following regions: Lower Juba, Middle Juba, and Lower Shabelle.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 21 March 2024

This week marks the equinox; a period of the year during which the Earth’s axis is tilted neither towards the north nor south resulting in a “nearly” equal amount of daylight and darkness at all latitudes. The apparent position of the overhead Sun is expected to be generally over the celestial equator, which cuts through the country over Lower Juba region from Alabakuus in Jamaame district to Jana Cabdalle in Afmadow district, today 20th March 2024. Therefore, today and for several days afterwards, the length of day will range from about 12 hours and six and one-half minutes at the equator and the surrounding areas over Lower Juba region. Based on NOAA-NCEP GFS, dry weather conditions are expected throughout the country particularly between 20th and 22nd March 2024. The weekly forecast indicates likelihood of moderate rains over the Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed and Lower Juba regions in between 22nd and 26th March 2024 (Figure 1). The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to be mediated by the north easterly winds ascending the east-west oriented elevations. While patches of clouds and isolated rains are likely over the elevated areas in Sanaag and Bari, the intensity of the rains over Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed on the windward sides of the Harage Highlands across the Ethiopian border. The forecast rains in the southwestern parts of the country are likely to be driven by the arrival of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and therefore signal the onset of Gu rains. This week may therefore mark the end of dry conditions which was attributed to reduced moisture influx due to the delays in the northward movement of rain-bearing ITCZ because of the lower-level cyclonic circulation associated with tropical cyclone Filipo in the Mozambique channel. Moderate rains are therefore likely over the southwestern parts of Somalia during the first week of April 2024. As a demonstration of the intense insolation associated with the present position of the overhead Sun, elevated temperatures of above 40°C are expected over southwestern parts of Somalia. While such is associated with thermal discomfort, it is the lifting of this hot and moist airmass that will precipitate into the rains in the coming days. Most parts of the country are likely to observe generally warm conditions of between 30°C and 40°C with only elevated areas in Ceerigaabo and areas in the northern coastal strip recording less than 30°C.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 28 March 2024

This forecast period marks the transition from the tail-end of Jilal to the forecast Gu season onset. Based on NOAA-NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS), moderate to heavy rains are expected over most parts of Somaliland, Jubaland, South West, Hirshabelle, and Galgaduud with dry conditions likely to continue over most parts of Puntland. The cloudiness and rains in the northern parts of the country are likely to be mediated by the north easterly winds ascending the east-west oriented elevations. While patches of clouds and isolated rains are likely over the elevated areas in Sanaag and Bari, the intensity of the rains over Awdal and Woqooyi Galbeed on the windward sides of the Harage Highlands across the Ethiopian border. The forecast rains in the southwestern parts of the country are likely to be driven by the arrival of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and therefore signal the onset of Gu rains. The temporal and spatial distribution of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) are as follows: Heavy cumulative rainfall between 100 mm and 150 mm is forecast over western parts of Badhaadhe district and central parts of Kismaayo district in Lower Juba region, central areas of Bardheere district and northern areas of Luuq district in Gedo region, central areas of Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, eastern parts of Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region and eastern parts of Burco district in Togdheer region. The rains over isolated places in these areas particularly Badhaadhe in Lower Juba, Bardheere and Luuq districts in Gedo region and Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region are likely to be more intense leading up to more than 150 mm. As the week progresses the very heavy rains over Bardheere district in Gedo region are likely to sum up to more than 200 mm. It is noteworthy that such rains are likely to fall within the in-country catchments of both Juba and Shabelle Rivers. Moderate cumulative rainfall of between 50 m and 100 mm is expected over most places in the following areas: Badhaadhe, Kismaayo and Jamaame districts in Lower Juba region, Bardheere and Luuq districts in Gedo region, Belet Weyne district in Hiraan region, Dhuusamareeb district in Galgaduud region, Burco district in Togdheer region, Gebiley district and western parts of Hargeisa district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, Baki and Borama districts in Awdal region. Moderate rains are also likely over Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Garbahaarey district in Gedo region, Qansax Dheere district in Bay region, Tayeeglow district in Bakool region, Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, Sheikh district in Togdheer, Berbera district in Woqooyi Galbeed region, and Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region. The rains in the northern parts of the country particularly those over the northern border between Gebiley and Hargeisa districts are likely to be observed earlier between 27th and 29th March 2024. Light cumulative rainfall of less than 50 mm is forecast over most of the other places in Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Lower Juba, Gedo, Bay, Bakool, Middle Juba, Lower Shabelle, Middle Shabelle, Hiraan, and Galgaduud regions. Light rainfall is also likely over most parts of central and northern parts of Ceerigaabo district in Sanaag region and a few places in Bosasso and Qandala districts in Bari region. It is important to point out that the rains over the upper catchments of both Juba and Shabelle Rivers will be light to moderate in intensity. Dry conditions are likely to prevail over vast areas in Mudug region, Nugaal region, Sool region and Bari region. Dry conditions are also expected over a few places in the following areas: Ceel Afweyn and Laasqoray distrcist in Sanaag region, Cabudwaaq and Ceel Dheer districts in Galgaduud, Balcad district in Middle Shabelle, Qoryooley, Sablaale and Baraawe districts in Lower Shabelle, eastern parts of Bu’aale district in Middle Jubas, northern parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region.

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STATUS OF RIVER BREAKAGES ALONG JUBA AND SHABELLE RIVERS - ISSUED MARCH 2024

The Food and Agriculture Organization’s Somalia Water and Land Information Management (FAO SWALIM) Project, has finalized the analysis and mapping of the river breakages along the Juba and Shabelle rivers using very high resolution satellite imagery. Following the El Niño-induced widespread floods of 2023, there have been an up surge in reported open breakages. A total of 190 Open breakage points, 76 Canal flooding points, 518 River overflow points and 23 points closed with sandbags have been identified along the Shabelle River while 109 Open breakage points, 1 Canal flooding points, 226 River overflow points and 5 points closed with sandbags have been identified along the Juba River which require immediate attention. Several other points, which are either potential or temporarily closed with sandbags, have also been identified. The forecast above average rainfall during the coming Gu season is likely to lead to high potential of flooding over the Juba and Shabelle rivers especially where open and potential points have been identified. There is therefore an immediate need to close the open points and reinforce areas where there are weak river embankments. Intervening agencies are advised to take advantage of the current dry period until the rains start and carry out temporary or long term measures to close the river breakages. This will see a reduction of riverine flooding in case of heavy rains and consequently a massive reduction in economic losses to the country.

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Review of Deyr 2023 Rainfall Performance, Jilal Status, Gu Outlook, and Implications on Livelihoods over Somalia

Several key findings have been obtained following a review of the 2023 Deyr (October-November-December) seasonal rainfall. Heavy cumulative rainfall was observed over the south and central parts of the country with a substantial 1,152 mm being recorded in Baidoa in Bay region representing five times of the station’s Long-Term Mean (LTM). The rainfall was even much heavier in Berbera in Wooqoyi Galbeed Region where the amount was 26 times the LTM. The Deyr rains began in early October over parts of Somaliland and central parts of Puntland spreading southwards to Gedo and Bay-Bakool regions. However, there was a sharp end to the Deyr rains particularly over Puntland and Somaliland with no single rainy day observed in Puntland in December. There was more than 30 consecutive dry days in almost all the stations in the country between 1st October and 31st December 2023. The observed rainfall amounts, and the length of wet spells particularly over the Juba and Shabelle River basins within the country were 100% in agreement with the forecast. The onset of Deyr rains across the country was also generally in agreement with the forecast with most of the stations realizing onset within a week of the forecast date.

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Weekly Weather Forecast for SIRA II Project Districts Somaliland - Issued 01-12-2023

Weather Forecast for the Period 1st to 7th December 2023 Rainfall Forecast: Light rainfall ranging between 2 to 5 mm is expected in the northeastern parts of the project area. This encompasses the western regions of Berbera district, Banmadar and Cabdi Geeddi in the eastern regions of the Baki district, as well as Beeyo Liiban in the eastern parts of Lughaye district and Ceel Lay Heelay in the northern part of Hargeisa district. Conversely, dry conditions are expected to persist across the remaining project areas, with the likelihood of rainfall less than 2 mm. Temperature Forecast: Mild temperatures between 20°C and 25°C are expected in the southern parts of Borama and Gebiley districts, as well as the southwest of Hargeisa district. Northern parts of Lughaye district are expected to experience relatively higher temperatures ranging from 30°C to 35°C. For the rest of the project area, moderate temperatures between 25°C and 30°C is expected.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 06 December 2023

Dry conditions: Most parts of the country are expected to remain dry during the coming week. The model predictions for the month of December indicating minimal rainfall amounts across the country and the Ethiopian highlands signals the end of the Deyr rainy season for Somalia. Temperature Forecast: The current forecast indicates likelihood of high temperatures ranging from 30°C to 35°C over extensive areas in the south, central and northeastern parts of the country. Milder temperatures ranging between 20°C and 25°C are anticipated over some areas in the following regions: Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer and Sanaag regions and inland parts of Bari region. Moderate temperatures of 25°C to 30°C are anticipated in the rest of the country.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 13 December 2023

Light rainfall of below 50 mm is forecast over some areas in the southern parts of the country in the coming week. These light rains are expected in the earlier part of the forecast week (13th – 15th December) over Badhaadhe, Kismayo and Jamaame districts in Lower Juba region, Ceel Waaq and Belet Xaawo districts in the Gedo region. Other areas expected to receive the light rains are the coastal areas of Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Marca and Kurtunwaarey districts, areas in the Sablaale, Qoryooley, and Barawe districts in Lower Shabelle region, and Baidoa in Bay region. Although moderate in cumulative amounts, the rains over the Lower Juba region are likely to be spread out across the entire week and will therefore be less intense. Moderate rains above 50 mm may be observed in some areas along the southern coastal strip whenever the monsoonal winds blowing parallel to the coastline are accentuated by any elevated East-West oriented terrain. As these monsoonal winds blow southwards across the Gulf, there are also chances of trace amounts of rains over the northern coastal strip including Caluula and Qandala districts in Bari region and Berbera districts in Woqooyi Galbeed region. Dry conditions – The rest of the country is expected to remain dry during the coming week. The model predictions of minimal rainfall amount across the country and the Ethiopian highlands in the month of December signals the end of the Deyr rainy season for Somalia.

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Beletweyne Riverine Flood Impact Map - Issued 17 November 2023

Between the 12th and 15th of November 2023, approximately 24,318 buildings, 562 km of roads and 14,697 Hectares of farms in Belet Weyne were flooded, as depicted on the map. The flood extents were identified through a comprehensive analysis, incorporating data from a modified Global Flood Model (GFM) based on Sentinel-1 image of November 14, 2023, visual interpretation of UNOSAT Beletweyne city extent data of November 12, 2023, and Sentinel-2 image of November 15, 2023. This inundation had a notable impact on the region, affecting 54% of buildings, 6% of the main road distance, and 41% of agricultural cropland. The data derived from this analysis offers a detailed overview of the extent and consequences of the flooding, facilitating a more informed understanding of the situation for effective response and mitigation efforts.

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Somalia Rainfall Forecast – Issued 08 November 2023

In the next one-week, heavy rainfall is expected over the coastal parts of Galmudug; moderate to heavy rainfall is likely over Gedo, parts of Bakool, Hiran, Lower Juba, and Middle Juba regions, and dry conditions with chances of isolated light rainfall in anticipated over Somaliland and Puntland (Map 1). The three -days forecast (Map 1) shows that much of the forecast rains over Mudug region are likely to be received between 8th and 10th November 2023. The spatio-temperal variation of the forecast rainfall (Map 1) is described below: • Heavy rainfall of between 100 mm and 150 mm is expected over several areas in the coastal parts of Galmudug state and in isolated areas in Jilib district in Middle Juba region, Garbaharey and Belet Xaawo districts in Gedo region, and Hudur and Tayeeglow districts in Bakool. The rains over the coastal parts of Galmudug are likely to be intense (more than 150 mm) with the localized storms over Ceel Dheer and Xarardheere districts cumulating to over 200 mm. • Moderate rainfall of between 50 mm and 100 mm is forecast over several areas in Gedo region, Ceel Dheer and Ceel Buur districts in Galgadudd region, Xarardheere, Hobyo and Jaribaan districts in Mudug region, Bulo Burte district in Hiraan region, and Hudur and Tayeeglow districts in Bakool region. Towards the south, rainfall of similar amount is expected over several areas in Qansax Dheere and Dinsoor districts in Bay region, Jilib and Saakow districts in Middle Juba region, Jamaame district, southern parts of Badhaadhe district, western parts of Afmadow district in Lower Juba region. • Light to rainfall of below 50 mm is expected over several areas in Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle regions, Kismaayo district and central and eastern parts of Afmadow districts in Lower Juba region, central parts of Middle Juba region including Bualle district. Similar rains are also likely over Bur Hakaba abd Baydhaba districts in Bay region, Rab Dhuure, Waajid and Ceel Barde districts in Bakool region, BeletWeyne and Jalalaqsi districts in Hiraan region. In the central parts of country, the areas that are expected to receive rains if similar intensities include: Cabudwaaq, Dhuusamareeb and Cadaado districts in Galgaduud region and Galdogob district in Mudug region. • Dry conditions are expected over expansive areas in Somaliland and Puntland, except Gaalkacyo district in Mudug region where isolated light rainfall is expected.

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Somalia Flood Advisory for Juba and Shabelle Rivers - Issued 20 November 2023

Juba River Moderate to heavy rains received for about two weeks have generated run off that have caused the water levels along the entire Juba River to overflow their riverbanks causing devastating floods which have led to damage to crop lands and road infrastructure rendering them impassable and cutting off access in to and out of towns and other human settlements. Following heavy rains (125.0 mm) recorded yesterday 19th November 2023, the bridge at Luuq has been reportedly overtopped and is at risk of being swept away. The rains over Bardheere have been particularly intense with 108 mm, 35 mm, 96 mm and 58 mm of rain having been observed on 16th, 17th, 19th and 20th November 2023, respectively leading to sweeping away of Budubo bridge. Heavy rains have also been received downstream at Bualle with 71.0 mm being recorded yesterday, 19th November 2023. The light to moderate rainfall forecast over Juba River catchment in Ethiopian Highlands and within the Somalia border in Luuq district of Gedo region will generate runoff of less volume compared to previous week. However, the runoff from the previous moderate to heavy rains and ongoing light to moderate rains will sustain the river overflows and flooding at Dollow and Luuq. Run off from both ongoing and forecast moderate to heavy rains over the Juba River downstream catchment at Bardheere district in Gedo region and parts of Middle Juba region will generate enough runoff leading to increased river overflows and flooding at Bardheere, Saakow, Bualle and Jilib districts. There is therefore SUSTAINED FLOODING along the entire Juba River with INCREASING MAGNITUDE at both Bardheere and downstream at Saakow, Bualle and Jilib. The activated response plans should therefore be sustained along the upper stretch and upscaled downstream at Bardheere, Saakow, Bualle and Jilib. Shabelle River Water levels along the Shabelle River have been steadily increasing in the last three weeks. The river reached bankful level (8.30m) at Belet Weyne on Saturday 11th November 2023. The subsequent riverbank overflow led to massive floods in Belet Weyne town and the surrounding areas leading to damage to buildings, crop lands and rendering the passage into and out of town impassable due to bridge overflows. Based on timely advisories from SWALIM, SoDMA/MoHADM and other partners, the population was safely evacuated to designated higher grounds by the time the floods started. Moderate to heavy rains have been reported along the Shabelle River catchment with 70 mm, 31.8 mm and 29 mm received yesterday, 19th November 2023, at Bulo Burte, Jowhar and Balcad, respectively. The flow of the flood wave downstream coupled with moderate to heavy rains have led to river level rise at Bulo Burte to 32 cm above high flood risk level and only 48 cm below bankful. At Jowhar the level is only 10 cm below moderate risk level and 60 cm to bankful. Even if the flood wave is expected to flow downstream beyond Balcad in the coming days, floods have already been observed as a result of river breakages and flash floods. The light to moderate rainfall forecast over Shabelle River catchment in Ethiopian Highlands and within Hiran region in Somalia will generate runoff of less volume compared to previous week. However, the runoff from the previous moderate to heavy rains and ongoing light to moderate rains will sustain the river overflows and flooding at Belet Weyne and steady river level rise downstream at Bulo Burte, Jalalaqsi, Jowhar and Balcad. There is therefore SUSTAINED FLOODING at Belet Weyne and its environs and HIGH RISK OF FLOODING at Bulo Burte and its environs and PROJECTED HIGH RISK at Jowhar and its environs. The activated response plans should therefore be sustained at Belet Weyne town and the surrounding areas. The evacuation plans should be activated and sustained at Bulo Burte and surrounding areas, while it should be placed on standby at Jowhar and surrounding areas.

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Luuq District Flood Impact Analysis Map - 09 November 2023

Utilizing the flood extent analysis conducted by UNOSAT on November 7th, 2023, it is evident that the onset of El Niño in the Horn of Africa has caused the flooding of 6,494 hectares of land in Luuq District. As per OSM data, this has resulted in the submersion of 316 buildings and 29 kilometers of roads. Additionally, 3,013 hectares of agricultural land, as per SWALIM agrimask, were submerged. This data emphasizes the immediate and significant repercussions of the ongoing El Niño event on the region.

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Beletweyne Riverine Flood Impact Map - Issued 21 November 2023

By 20th of November 2023, approximately 43,455 buildings; 968 Km of road and 28,418 Hectares of farms in Belet Weyne were flooded, as depicted on the map. The flood extents were identified through a comprehensive analysis, incorporating data from a modified Global Flood Model (GFM) based on Sentinel-1 image of November 20, 2023, visual interpretation of UNOSAT Beletweyne city extent data of November 16, 2023, and Sentinel-2 image of November 20, 2023. This inundation had a notable impact on the region. The data derived from this analysis offers a detailed overview of the extent and consequences of the flooding, facilitating a more informed understanding of the situation for effective response and mitigation efforts.

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