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The World Conservation Union

status of medium to large irrigation schemes in southern somalia

The Juba and Shabelle river basins have been, and could again be, the breadbasket of Somalia. They have considerable potential for irrigation development, and several irrigation schemes have been developed on these two major river basins to provide sustainable food security and alleviate poverty in the country. However, due to 16 years of civil insecurity and unrest the majority of these schemes have collapsed. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the and rdquoBanana Sector Study and rdquoprepared by the European Commission (EC, 2002), the European Commission has moved to restore some irrigation facilities, and rehabilitate and maintain former irrigated plantations and irrigation schemes.

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status of medium to large irrigation schemes in southern somalia

The Juba and Shabelle river basins have been, and could again be, the breadbasket of Somalia. They have considerable potential for irrigation development, and several irrigation schemes have been developed on these two major river basins to provide sustainable food security and alleviate poverty in the country. However, due to 16 years of civil insecurity and unrest the majority of these schemes have collapsed.

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Guide for preparation of flood risk

the guide has been prepared for the European Investment Bank to provide advice on fluvial flood risk management that addresses planning

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HR Wallingford

W-08 Qiimaynta biyaha Miyiga

Khayraadka biyaha gudaha Soomaaliya waa ay kooban yihiin tiro iyo tayo labadaba, taas oo ay weheliso abaar soo noqnoqda iyo daadad sii xumeeya xaaladda ammaanka biyaha ee gudaha dalka. Ka hor bilowgii dagaalka sokeeye ee horraantii1991, hay'adda ugu muhiimsan ee mas'uul ka ah maaraynta khayraadka biyaha gudaha Soomaaliya waxay ahayd Wasaaradda Khayraadka Biyaha iyo Macdanta iyada oo loo marayo Xarunta Biyaha Qaran. Manaafacaadsiga biyo siinta maxalliga waxaa mas'uuliyad ka saarnayd Hay'adda Horumarinta Biyaha (WDA), halka Wasaaradda Beeraha ay qorshayn jirtey oo ka shaqayn jirtey hawlaha biyaha waraabka beeraha ee wabiga Shabeelle. Marka ay noqoto Webiga Jubba, horumarinta waxaa ka mas'uul ahaa Wasaaradda Qorshaynta Qaranka iyo Horumarinta Dooxada Juba. Qabanqaabooyinka hay'adeed ee maareynta khayraadka biyaha waxay muujiyeen kala qoqobnaan, oo aan lahay xad cad oo u dhexeeya hawlaha hay'adaha qaraniyo kuwa maxalliga ah. Markii uu qarxay dagaalkii sokeeye ee 1991-kii, wax badan oo ka mid ah kaabayaasha biyaha waa la burburiyay oo waxaa si xun loo waxyeeleeyey adeegyo bulshadeed oo ka jirey gudaha Soomaaliya sida caafimaadka, waxbarashada, biyaha iyo fayadhowrka. Maadaama Soomaaliya ay ku taal geyi aad u biyo-yar, horumarinta deegaameed, midda bulshadeed iyo dhaqaalaba waxay si baaxad weyn ugu tiirsan tahay ammaan biyo la hagaajiyey oo maareyn khayraad biyood oo wax-ku-ool ah leh.

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W-09 - Suroogalnimo Dhurasho Biyo-roobaad gudaha Soomaaliya

Soomaaliya waxay dabooshaa geyi ah 637,657 km2 oo dadka ku nool lagu qiyaasay in ay yihiin 7.5 milyan sanadkii 2003. Dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya wuxuu badanaa ku dhisan yahay beeraha (beeraha iyo xoolaha, tan dambe ayaa ah halbowlaha ugu weyn). Dhaqaalahu wuxuu si heer sare ah ugu tiirsan yahay helitaan biyood, taas oo iyana markeeda ku xiran roobka. Roobabka Soomaaliya ma aha mid yar oo kaliya, ka hoos 100 mm/sanadkii meelaha qaar, laakiin waxa uu leedahay isbedbedel sare oo xilliile iyo mid masaaxadeed (Lifaaqa 1 ilaa 5). Celceliska roobabka sanadle wuxuu dhexeeyaa 215 mm gudaha gobollada Waqooyi-bari ilaa uu ku dhawaado 550 mm gudaha gobollada Koonfureed iyo Bartamaha (SWALIM, 2007). Isudheelitirka biyaha dalka wuxuu muujinayaa uumibax ka badan roobabka ku daá gudaha dalka oo idil. Waxaa intaas dheer, xaalado kale oo biyo iyo oogo dhul (hydro-physical conditions) oo saamayn xun (tabane) ku leh helitaanka biyo saafi ah waxa ka mid ah xaaluf dhul iyo calwidda oogooyinka biyaha. Xaaladda waxaa sii xumaatay 16 sano oo dagaal sokeeye jirey, gaar ahaan gudaha gobollada koonfureed. Tiro ka mid ah ururada maxaliga iyo kuwa caalamiyeed waxay bilaabeen barnaamijyo dib-u-dhisid, dhawris deegaameed iyo taageerid hab-nololeed rayid. Khubaradadu waxay qiyaasayaan in Soomaaliya ay ka mid tahay 13 dal oo Afrikaan ah oo wajihi doona biyo yaraan sanadka 2025. Dal waxaa la yiraahadaa waa mid biyo yar marka biyaha sannadlaha ee halkii qofkii heli karo ay ka hoosayso 1000 m3. Durba, Soomaaliya waxay leedahay wax ka yar 500 m3/Qofkiiba/sanadkii (UNECA, 2000). Tan waxaa loo tiriyaa roob-di'id goosgoos u qaybsamida xilliile iyo tan masaaxadeed oo xaddiga celceliska sanadle uu u dhexeeya 100 iyo 800 mm, uumibax sare, iyo waxqabadyo aadame oo sii xumeeya nabaad guurka.

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W-03 Diiwaagelin Xog cilmiyeed Biyo-hawo-saadaalin (hydro-meteorological data) ee Soomaaliya

Dalalka soo koraya; gaar ahaan Afrika, waxay wajahayaan caqabado waaweyn oo ka haysta maaraynta xogta iyo macluumaadka. Halka sida la og yahay in meeldhexe ka maareynta xogta gundhig ah ay dhaqan wanaagsan tahay markii ay arrin cilmi-baaris tahay, dalal aan badnayn ma maareyn inay ka guulgaaraan arritaan, inkasta oo uu kordhayo xaddiga aqoonta macluumaadka iyo farsamada isgaarsiinta. Soomaaliya waxay weliba wajahaysaa caqabado ka waaweyn kuwa dalalkaan iyadoo ay ugu wacan tahay dagaalka sokeeye ee daba dheeraaday. Hal iyo bar tobanaad sano oo dagaalka sokeeye ka jirey gudaha dalka wuxuu u keenay khasaare iyo dhaawac wax badan oo la xiriira macluumaad biyo & dhulka oo nus qarnigii hore la ururiyay. Warbixintani waxay soo bandhigaysaa diiwaangelin xog taariikheed cilmiyeed biyo-hawo-saadaalin (hydro-meteorological) taasoo laga ururiyay ilo kala duwan, iyo xogta hydrometeorological-ka hadda ay uruurinayso SWALIM iyadoo kaashanaysa hay'ado la hawlgala.

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Inventory of Hydro -Meteorological Data of Somalia

Developing countriesespecially in Africa, face great challenges in data and information management. While it is known that centralised database management is a good practice in the field of research, not many countries have managed to achieve this, even with the growing rate of knowledge of information and communication technology. Somalia faces even greater challenges than these countries due to the prolonged civil war. One and a half decade of the civil war in the country have resulted in loss and damage of most water and land related information collected in the previous half century. On the other hand, great numbers of agencies are working in Somalia with different objectives and activities, which have led to disintegration of information. Having realised this, land and water data management and exchange have become important components within the SWALIM project. SWALIM is trying to recover lost information from different sources all over the world and at the same time re-establish data collection networks in collaboration with partner agencies. One area of interest is information and data on hydro-meteorology. A lot of resources and efforts have been put into place by SWALIM in an effort to recover these lost data.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-05 Xaaladda Mashaariic Waraab oo Dhexdhexaad ilaa Waaweyn ah oo gudaha Koonfurta Soomaaliya ka jira

Inkastoo beeraha waraabka ay ahaayeen isha-nolosha dhaqaalaha Soomaaliya ka hor bilowga dagaalka sokeeye ee 1990, wax badan oo macluumaadkii hababka waraabka oo dagaal hortii jirey ayaa lumay oo wax yar ayaa la og yahay xaaladdooda hadda ah. Warbixintani waxay muujinaysaa natiijooyinka ka soo baxay qiimayn ay SWALIM fulisay si loo ogaado xaaladda mashaariicda waraabka dhexdhexaad ilaa waaweynka ah oo ka jira gudaha Koonfurta Soomaaliya iyo kaabayaashooda waraabka. Waxaa la fuliyay dib-u- eegis qoraallo dhammeystiran, wareysiyo dad muhiim ah oo lala xiriiray iyo falanqayn ballaaran oo ah xog jeedaalin dareeme fog si loo gaaro natiijooyinka qiimaynta. Waxaa la soo saaray macluumaad gundhig ah oo ku saabsan biyoxireennada, habab kanaal iyo mashaariic waraab dabaded waxaa la dhisay xog-gundhig GIS ah ee kaabayaasha waraabka. Waxaa la ogaaday qiyaas 5000 km oo kanaalo ah markii barbardhig loola sameeyey masawirro dayax-gacmeed. Waxaa la aqoonsaday xuduudaha iyo xaaladda 34 mashaariic waraab oo dhexdhexaad ilaa waaweyn ah. Xogta si fiican ayaa loo habeeyay oo waxaa la heli karaa markii loo isticmaalo desktop GIS software ama software web ku salaysan oo Geonetwork ah. Natiijooyinka soo baxay, oo ay weheliyaan talooyin, ayaa waxaa la filayaa in ay aasaas u noqdaan dadaallada dayactirka kaabayaasha ee bulshada deeqbixiyaha.

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W-11 - Khayraadka Biyaha ee Soomaaliya

Warbixintu waa gunaanad SWALIM ee qiimayno biyood iyo warbixinno, lagu kaabay falanqayn tirakoob faahfaahsan oo ah kala duwanaanshiyo xilliile iyo midka masaaxadeed ee khayraadka biyood ee dusha iyo dhul-hoose laga heli karo, iyo isticmaalladooda hadda iyo ka suurogali kara. Qiimayntu waxay ku salaysan tahay is dhexgelinta xogta biyo-jawi saadaaleed iyo abuur-oogoo dhuleed (hydrometeorological iyo physiographic data) oo ay soo ururiyeen oo falanqeeyeen SWALIM iyo hay'ado hawl-la-wadaag ah. Qiimeyntu waxay ka warramaysaa khayraadka biyaha ugu muhiimsan gudaha dalka, waxay cadaynaysaa baahiyo khayraad biyo gaar ah iyo fursado, waxay qoraysaa hawlo horumarin khayraad biyood oo weli-soconaya iyo kuwo la qorsheeyay; waxay soo jeedinasaa habab-raacyo suurtogal ah ee horumarin khayraad biyood oo muddo gaaban iyo mid dheer oo heer dhexdhexaad - iyo mid baaxad weyn ah isugu jira. Warbixinta waxaa loogu talagalay in lagu taageero maareynta khayraadyo biyo oo isku dhafan ee gudaha Soomaaliya, oo ku saleysan isku dubaridid la xiriirta horumarin iyo maarayn khayraad biyood iyo dhul.

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W-01 Cimilada Soomaaliya

Soomaaliya guud ahaan waxay leeday cimilo u dhexeysa oomane iyo mid bar-oomane ah. Roob-da’u waa sifo qeexeysa cimilada oo waxay leedahay kala duwanaasho weyn oo masaaxadeed iyo mid waqtiyeed. Cimilada Soomaaliya waxa ay ka abuuranta kulanka dabaylaha ka soo dhaca waqooyiga iyo koonfurta aagga dhulsooraha (inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)). Meelo badan oo gudaha Soomaaliya ah waxay tani ka dhalisaa laba xilli roobaad – Guga marka aaggu gobolku xagga waqooyi iyo deyrta marka uu u wareego koonfur. Labada xaaladoodba, roobku wuxuu ka dhashaa dabaysha qoyan ee ka timaadda Badweynta Hindiya, marka dabayshu u dhacayso xagga koonfureed. Dabaylaha waqooyi-bari, ka soo dhacaya Aasiya iyo Caaraabiya, waxay dhaliyaaan roob aan badnayn. Waxaa badanaa la aaminsan yahay in roob di’iddu tahay waxa ugu muhiimsan cimilada oo saamaynaya nolosha gudaha Soomaaliya. Si gaar ah, isbedel xilli ka xilli, iyo isbedello isla xilliga gudihiisa waxay yihiin waxa go’aamiya guulaha hawlaha beeraha.

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L-10 Qiimayn Xaaluf Dhul ee Goob loo Xushay Daraasayn gudaha Soomaaliya

Sida hage waxtar u leh dadaalo ilaalin oo ku saabsan maareyn kheyraad dhul gudaha Somaliland, warbixintan waxay qeexaysaa noocyada baahsan ee xaalufka dhulka, waxa sababa iyo saamaynyahooda. Daraasadan oo dhamaystiran waxay lug leedahay laba heer oo qiimayn ah. Mid daboolaysa deegaanka oo dhan iyadoo la isticmaalayo habka khibradeed wax qiimeyn ee LADA-WOCAT iyo midda kale oo diiradda lagu saarayo aag maxali ah oo la isticmaalayo habab isku-dar ah sida LADA-WOCAT qiimayn khabiir, falanqayn masawirro dayax-gacmeed ee waqtiyo-taxane ah (1982 ilaa 2008), iyo falanqaynt xog sifooyin ciid oo taariikhiga ah. Noocyada ugu badan xaalufka dhulka la aqoonsaday waxaa ka mid ah dhir baabi’id, ciid hallaw, iyo hoos u dhac nafaqo ciid.

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L-09 Qiimayn Haboonaanshiyo Dhul ee Juba iyo Shabeelle

Warbixintan waxay qeexeysaa u haboonaanshiyo dhul oogadiis beer roobaad, beer waraab, daaq furan (xoolo-daaqsato) iyo kaymo meelaha gosha Webiyada Juba iyo Shabelle. Haboonaanshiyo dhul ayaa loo soo bandhigay qaab ah shax, khariidado iyo warbixin ku aadan noocyo isticmaa dhul gaar ah oo loo qeexay dalagyo kala gaar ah, xoolo daaqid ama noocyo kayn ah. Warbixintan waxay sidoo kale bixinaysaa faahfaahino ku saabsan Hab Qiimayn Dhul oo Automaatik looga dhigay Soomaaliya (Somalia Automated Land Evaluation System (SOMALES )), taas oo ah hirgelin Qaab-hawleed FAO u isticmaasho Qiimayn Dhul iyo ALES software oo Soomaaliya loo diyaariyey. Warbixintan waa wax waxtar leh hogaamin go'aanno siyaasadeed oo ku taxaluqa qorshayn isticmaal dhul.

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L-06 Haboonaanshiyo Dhul Aag laga Doortay gudaha Soomaaliyand

Si wax biirin u ah go’aanno siyaasad hogaamineedka qorshaynta isticmaalka dhulka, ayaa daraasadan waxay qeexeysaa awooda aagga daraasadda uu ku taageero noocyo isticmaal dhul oo gaar ah. Noocyada isticmaalka dhulka u muhiimsan la eegay waxay ahaayeen beer roobaad, daaq fidsan (xoolo-dhaqasho) iyo kayn. Haboonaanshiyo dhul waxaa lagu soo bandhigay qaab shaxeed, khariidado iyo faalooyin noocyo gaarah ee isticmaal dhul lagu qeexay dalagyo kala gaar ah, xoolo daaqeen ama noocyo dhir kayn. Warbixintan waxay sidoo kale bixinaysaa faahfaahino ku saabsan Hab Qiimayn Dhul oo Automaatik looga dhigay Soomaaliya (Somalia Automated Land Evaluation System (SOMALES )), taas oo ah hirgelin Qaab-hawleed FAO u isticmaasho Qiimayn Dhul iyo ALES software oo Soomaaliya loo diyaariyey. Warbixintan waa wax waxtar leh hogaamin go'aanno siyaasadeed oo ku taxaluqa qorshayn isticmaal dhul.

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L-11 Adeegsi Farsamooyin Jeedaalin Dareeme Fog si loo Qiimeeyo Khayraadka xoolo-daaqeenka gudaha Puntland, Soomaaliya

Ujeedada fikradeed ee daraasadda waa in la tijaabiyo oo la qiimeyn adeegsiga aalado jeedaalin dareeme fog iyo wax soo saar marka la qiimaynayo khayraadka xoolo-daaqeenka. Gudaha daraasadda jeedaalin dareeme fog oo ay ku biirsan tahay hawl duur ayaa la isticmaalay si loo qiimeeyo khayraad xoolo-daaqeen gudah laba goobood oo la darsayey oo ku yaal gudaha Gobollada Sanaag, Sool, Nugaal iyo Mudug ee Puntland gudaha waqooyiga Soomaaliya. Ujeedada daraasadda ugu muhiimsan waxay ahayd in la tijaabiyo farsamooyin Jeedaalin fog oo ah aalado lagu qiimeeyo oo lagula socodo khayraad xoolo-dhaqeen.

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Somalia Water and Land Information Management, Nairobi (Kenya)

W-10 Hagaajinta Odoroska Fataadda iyo Digniinta Hore ee Soomaaliya

Soomaaliya waxaa la kulantaa fatahaad aad u daran gudaha dhulka dooxada webiyada Juba iyo Shabeelle. Koror daran iyo soo noqnoqoshada daadadkaan waxay iyana markooda keeneen koror khasaare dhaqaale iyo dhaawacyo aadane markasta oo daadadkaani dhacaan.Warbixintani waxay soo bandhigaysaa fursado farsamadeed ee horumarinta hababka odoroska fatahaadda iyo digniinta hore ee Soomaaliya. Tani waa natiijada ka dhalatay qiimayn ay SWALIM iyo Hayadda Sahminta Joolojiyadeed ee Maraykanka (United States Geological Survey ( USGS )) ku sameeyeen Webiyada Juba iyo Shabeelle ee hillaadinta qulqul webi iyo qiimeynta habab u heeganaan daad butaaco ah ee magaalooyinka Garowe iyo Hargeysa.

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L-07 Sifeyn Isticmaal Dhul ee Jubba iyo Shabelle

Noocyo isticmaal dhul ee gudaha gosha Webiyada Juba iyo Shabeelle aayaa la aqoonsaday iyadoo loo marayo falanqayn ded dhul, wareysiyo lala yeeshay isticmaaleyaal dhul iyo adeegsiga masawirro dayax-gacmeed oo ah waqti la soo dhaafay iyo kuwo hadda. Warbixintu waxay sidoo kale muujinaysaa kala soocista isticmaalka dhul kala duwan oo hadda ka jirta gudaha meelaha gosha Juba iyo Shabeelle. Waxaa la xaqiijiyey dabaqadaha isticmaalka dhulka gudaha aagga la daraasay iyadoo loo marayo falanqayn ded dhul, wareysiyo yara-qaabaysan iyo tarjumid sawirro dayax-gacmeed, waxaana la sharaxay sifooyinkooda u gaarka ah. Isticmaaleyaalku waxay heli doonaan muuqaal guud oo faahfaahsan oo ah hawlaha isticmaalka dhulka gudaha aagga daraasadda.

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L-03 Ded Dhul Aagag Daraasad loo Doortay gudaha Somaliland iyo Koonfurta Soomaaliya

Daraasaddan, waxaa lagu abuuray darajooyin ded dhul iyadoo la isticmaalayo Hab Abla-abley Ded Dhul ee FAO (Land Cover Classification System (LCSS) of FAO), tarjumaad masawirro dayax-gacmeed, iyo soo hubin duur. Sharaxaadda noocyada ded dhulka ugu muhiimsan iyo xubno dhir iyo goobahooda ayaa la bixiyay faahfaahin labadii goobood daraasadda - mid gudaha Somaliland ah iyo mid kale oo gudaha Koonfurta Soomaaliya ah. Khariidadaha dedka dhulka lagu soo saaray daraasadan waxay anfici doonaan curiyo khariidado isticmaal dhul iyo inta lagu jiro falanqayn haboonaanshiyo dhul. Warbixinta waa khayraad qiimo badan u leh maareynta khayraad dabiiciyeedka.

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Natures Benefits in Kenya An Atlas of Ecosystems and Human Well-Being

Natureandrsquos Benefits in Kenya is an Atlas of Ecosystems and Human Well-Being represents a step forward in the analysis of poverty in Kenya and its relation to the natural environment. It is the result of a partnership of national and international organizations, some of which were involved in preparing the first high-resolution poverty maps of Kenya. This publication springs from an effort among these partners to overlay the newly created poverty maps with environmental resource maps based on surveys and remote sensing data. The intent is to show the location and status of key environmental resources that are likely to have significant links with poverty. In creating this report, we worked with several purposes and audiences in mind.

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World Resources Institute,Department of Resource Surveys and Remote Sensing (Government of Kenya),International Livestock Research Institute,Central Bureau of Statistics (Government of Kenya)

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L-01 - Buug-hage Sahan Duur - Baxaalli-dhul, Ciid, Ciid hallaw, Isticmaal Dhul iyo Ded

Buug-hagahaan Shan Duureed waxaa soo saaray kooxda dhulka SWALIM (Soomaaliya Water and Land Information Management System) si hoggaamiye u ah tusaale fikrado iyo aalado marka lagu fulinayo sahammo khayraad dhul duur ah. Waxaa loogu talagalay in loo isticmaalo labada meelood oo ah Somaliland iyo Koonfur Soomaaliya, labada meelood ee Mashruuca SWALIM ee hadda jira fiirada lagu saaray. Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaa isticmaali kara cid kasta oo aqoon-xirfadeed leh iyo / ama hay'ad ku hawlan diiwaangellinno khayraad dhul.

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Puntland State for Water, Energy and Natural Resources Corporation

L-02 Baxaalli-dhul Meelo Daraasad loo Doortay gudaha Somaliland iyo Koonfurta Soomaaliya

Natiijada u muhiimsan daraasaddan waa xog-ururin baxaalli-dhul cusub ee aagag danayn gaar ah loo doortay (AOI). Waxaa la sameeyey khariidaynta baxaalli-dhulalka oo heer faahfaahin dhexe ah 1:50 000 ilaa 1 : 100 000 oo hadda ah tan ugu dambeysa, la faahfaahiyey oo xog-ururin sugan leh oo gaarsiisan qaybo badan oo dhulka Soomaaliyeed ka mid ah. Sansaaka muuqaal iyo sarrayn dhul ayaa la khariidadeeyey iyadoo la marayo tarjumaad muuqaal masawirro dayax-gacmeed oo ay weheliso cabirista abuurta dhulka (geomorphometry). Warbixinta waxaa ku jira laba ah khariidado baxaalli-dhul (landform), midbana u taagan yahay labada goobood ee daraasadda. Warbixinta ayaa loo isticmaali karaa diiwaangelin khayraad dabiici ah iyo maareyn. Waxay waxtar u leedahay in loo adeegsado khariidadayn ciid iyo ded dhul iyo qiimayn haboonaanshiyo dhul.

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